Reaction: 2'-deoxyribonucleoside 5'-diphosphate + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O = ribonucleoside 5'-diphosphate + thioredoxin
Other name(s): ribonucleotide reductase (ambiguous); CDP reductase; ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase; UDP reductase; ADP reductase; nucleoside diphosphate reductase; ribonucleoside 5'-diphosphate reductase; ribonucleotide diphosphate reductase; 2'-deoxyribonucleoside-diphosphate:oxidized-thioredoxin 2'-oxidoreductase; RR; nrdB (gene name); nrdF (gene name); nrdJ (gene name)
Systematic name: 2'-deoxyribonucleoside-5'-diphosphate:thioredoxin-disulfide 2'-oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme is responsible for the de novo conversion of ribonucleoside diphosphates into deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates, which are essential for DNA synthesis and repair. There are three types of this enzyme differing in their cofactors. Class Ia enzymes contain a diferric-tyrosyl radical, class Ib enzymes contain a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical, and class II enzymes contain adenosylcobalamin. In all cases the cofactors are involved in generation of a transient thiyl radical on a cysteine residue, which attacks the substrate, forming a ribonucleotide 3'-radical, followed by water loss to form a ketyl radical. The ketyl radical is reduced to 3'-keto-deoxynucleotide concomitant with formation of a disulfide anion radical between two cysteine residues. A proton-coupled electron-transfer from the disulfide radical to the substrate generates a 3'-deoxynucleotide radical, and the final product is formed when the hydrogen atom that was initially removed from the 3'-position of the nucleotide by the thiyl radical is returned to the same position. The disulfide bridge is reduced by the action of thioredoxin. cf. EC 22.214.171.124, ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase (formate) and EC 126.96.36.199, ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase (thioredoxin).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9047-64-7
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