IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name: rhodopsin kinase

Reaction: ATP + rhodopsin = ADP + phosphorhodopsin

Other name(s): cone opsin kinase; G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 1; GPCR kinase 1; GRK1; GRK7; opsin kinase; opsin kinase (phosphorylating); rhodopsin kinase (phosphorylating); RK; STK14

Systematic name: ATP:rhodopsin phosphotransferase

Comments: Requires G-protein for activation and therefore belongs to the family of G-protein-dependent receptor kinases (GRKs). Acts on the bleached or activated form of rhodopsin; also phosphorylates the β-adrenergic receptor, but more slowly. Does not act on casein, histones or phosphvitin. Inhibited by Zn2+ and digitonin (cf. EC, β-adrenergic-receptor kinase and EC, G-protein-coupled receptor kinase).

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 54004-64-7


1. Benovic, J.L., Mayor, F., Jr., Somers, R.L., Caron, M.G. and Lefkowitz, R.J. Light-dependent phosphorylation of rhodopsin by β-adrenergic receptor kinase. Nature 321 (1986) 869-872. [PMID: 3014340]

2. Shichi, H. and Somers, R.L. Light-dependent phosphorylation of rhodopsin. Purification and properties of rhodopsin kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 253 (1978) 7040-7046. [PMID: 690139]

3. Palczewski, K., McDowell, J.H. and Hargrave, P.A. Purification and characterization of rhodopsin kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 263 (1988) 14067-14073. [PMID: 2844754]

4. Weller, M., Virmaux, N. and Mandel, P. Light-stimulated phosphorylation of rhodopsin in the retina: the presence of a protein kinase that is specific for photobleached rhodopsin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72 (1975) 381-385. [PMID: 164024]

5. Cha, K., Bruel, C., Inglese, J. and Khorana, H.G. Rhodopsin kinase: expression in baculovirus-infected insect cells, and characterization of post-translational modifications. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94 (1997) 10577-10582. [PMID: 9380677]

6. Khani, S.C., Abitbol, M., Yamamoto, S., Maravic-Magovcevic, I. and Dryja, T.P. Characterization and chromosomal localization of the gene for human rhodopsin kinase. Genomics 35 (1996) 571-576. [PMID: 8812493]

7. Chen, C.K., Zhang, K., Church-Kopish, J., Huang, W., Zhang, H., Chen, Y.J., Frederick, J.M. and Baehr, W. Characterization of human GRK7 as a potential cone opsin kinase. Mol. Vis. 7 (2001) 305-313. [PMID: 11754336]

8. Willets, J.M., Challiss, R.A. and Nahorski, S.R. Non-visual GRKs: are we seeing the whole picture? Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 24 (2003) 626-633. [PMID: 14654303]

[EC created 1989 as EC (EC created 1978, incorporated 1992), transferred 2005 to EC]

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