IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name: diguanylate cyclase

Reaction: 2 GTP = 2 diphosphate + cyclic di-3',5'-guanylate

For diagram of reaction click here

Glossary: c-di-GMP = c-di-guanylate = cyclic di-3',5'-guanylate = cyclic-bis(3'→5') dimeric GMP

Other name(s): DGC; PleD

Systematic name: GTP:GTP guanylyltransferase (cyclizing)

Comments: A GGDEF-domain-containing protein that requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity. The enzyme can be activated by BeF3, a phosphoryl mimic, which results in dimerization [3]. Dimerization is required but is not sufficient for diguanylate-cyclase activity [3]. Cyclic di-3',5'-guanylate is an intracellular signalling molecule that controls motility and adhesion in bacterial cells. It was first identified as having a positive allosteric effect on EC, cellulose synthase (UDP-forming) [1].

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number:


1. Ryjenkov, D.A., Tarutina, M., Moskvin, O.V. and Gomelsky, M. Cyclic diguanylate is a ubiquitous signaling molecule in bacteria: insights into biochemistry of the GGDEF protein domain. J. Bacteriol. 187 (2005) 1792-1798. [PMID: 15716451]

2. Méndez-Ortiz, M.M., Hyodo, M., Hayakawa, Y. and Membrillo-Hernández, J. Genome-wide transcriptional profile of Escherichia coli in response to high levels of the second messenger 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 8090-8099. [PMID: 16418169]

3. Paul, R., Abel, S., Wassmann, P., Beck, A., Heerklotz, H. and Jenal, U. Activation of the diguanylate cyclase PleD by phosphorylation-mediated dimerization. J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 29170-29177. [PMID: 17640875]

[EC created 2008]

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