Reaction: ATP + H2O + H+in = ADP + phosphate + H+out
Glossary: Fo the "o" refers to oligomycin. F0 is incorrect.
Other names: ATP synthase; F1-ATPase; FoF1-ATPase; H+-transporting ATPase; mitochondrial ATPase; coupling factors (F0, F1 and CF1); chloroplast ATPase; bacterial Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase
Systematic name: ATP phosphohydrolase (H+-transporting)
Comments: A multisubunit non-phosphorylated ATPase that is involved in the transport of ions. Large enzymes of mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacteria with a membrane sector (Fo, Vo, Ao) and a cytoplasmic-compartment sector (F1, V1, A1). The F-type enzymes of the inner mitochondrial and thylakoid membranes act as ATP synthases. All of the enzymes included here operate in a rotational mode, where the extramembrane sector (containing 3 α- and 3 β-subunits) is connected via the δ-subunit to the membrane sector by several smaller subunits. Within this complex, the γ- and ε-subunits, as well as the 9-12 c subunits rotate by consecutive 120° angles and perform parts of ATP synthesis. This movement is driven by the H+ electrochemical potential gradient. The V-type (in vacuoles and clathrin-coated vesicles) and A-type (archebacterial) enzymes have a similar structure but, under physiological conditions, they pump H+ rather than synthesize ATP.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number:
1. Boyer, P.D. The binding change mechanism for ATP synthase - some probabilities and possibilities. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1140 (1993) 215-250. [PMID: 8417777]
2. Abrahams, J.P., Leslie, A.G.W., Lutter, R. and Walker, J.F. Structure at 2.8 Å resolution of F1-ATPase from bovine heart mitochondria. Nature 375 (1994) 621-628. [PMID: 8065448]
3. Blair, A., Ngo, L., Park, J., Paulsen, I.T. and Saier, M.H., Jr. Phylogenetic analyses of the homologous transmembrane channel-forming proteins of the FoF1-ATPases of bacteria, chloroplasts and mitochondria. Microbiology 142 (1996) 17-32. [PMID: 8581162]
4. Noji, H., Yasuda, R., Yoshida, M. and Kinosita, K., Jr. Direct observation of the rotation of F1-ATPase. Nature 386 (1997) 299-302. [PMID: 9069291]