Reaction: geranyl diphosphate = (+)-(4R)-limonene + diphosphate
For diagram click here.
limonene: a monoterpenoid
(R)-limonene = (+)-limonene
Other name(s): (+)-limonene synthase; geranyldiphosphate diphosphate lyase [(+)-(R)-limonene-forming]; geranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [cyclizing, (+)-(4R)-limonene-forming]
Systematic name: geranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [cyclizing, (R)-limonene-forming]
Comments: Forms the first step of carvone biosynthesis in caraway. The enzyme from Carum carvi (caraway) seeds requires a divalent metal ion (preferably Mn2+) for catalysis. This enzyme occurs in Citrus, Carum (caraway) and Anethum (dill); ()-limonene, however, is made in the fir, Abies, and mint, Mentha, by EC 18.104.22.168, (4S)-limonene synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 155807-65-1
1. Bouwmeester, H.J., Gershenzon, J., Konings, M.C.J.M. and Croteau, R. Biosynthesis of the monoterpenes limonene and carvone in the fruit of caraway. I. Demonstration of enzyme activities and their changes with development. Plant Physiol. 117 (1998) 901-912. [PMID: 9662532]
2. Lucker, J., El Tamer, M.K., Schwab, W., Verstappen, F.W., van der Plas, L.H., Bouwmeester, H.J. and Verhoeven, H.A. Monoterpene biosynthesis in lemon (Citrus limon). cDNA isolation and functional analysis of four monoterpene synthases. Eur. J. Biochem. 269 (2000) 3160-3171. [PMID: 12084056]
3. Maruyama, T., Ito, M., Kiuchi, F. and Honda, G. Molecular cloning, functional expression and characterization of d-limonene synthase from Schizonepeta tenuifolia. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 24 (2001) 373-377. [PMID: 11305598]