Reaction: dimethylallyl diphosphate = isoprene + diphosphate
For diagram of reaction click here
Glossary: isoprene = 2-methylbuta-1,3-diene
Other name(s): ISPC; ISPS
Systematic name: dimethylallyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (isoprene-forming)
Comments: Requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity. This enzyme is located in the chloroplast of isoprene-emitting plants, such as poplar and aspen, and may be activitated by light-dependent changes in chloroplast pH and Mg2+ concentration [2,8].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number:
1. Silver, G.M. and Fall, R. Enzymatic synthesis of isoprene from dimethylallyl diphosphate in aspen leaf extracts. Plant Physiol. 97 (1991) 1588-1591. [PMID: 16668590]
2. Silver, G.M. and Fall, R. Characterization of aspen isoprene synthase, an enzyme responsible for leaf isoprene emission to the atmosphere. J. Biol. Chem. 270 (1995) 13010-13016. [PMID: 7768893]
3. Wildermuth, M.C. and Fall, R. Light-dependent isoprene emission (characterization of a thylakoid-bound isoprene synthase in Salix discolor chloroplasts). Plant Physiol. 112 (1996) 171-182. [PMID: 12226383]
4. Schnitzler, J.P., Arenz, R., Steinbrecher, R. and Lehming, A. Characterization of an isoprene synthase from leaves of Quercus petraea. Bot. Acta 109 (1996) 216-221.
5. Miller, B., Oschinski, C. and Zimmer, W. First isolation of an isoprene synthase gene from poplar and successful expression of the gene in Escherichia coli. Planta 213 (2001) 483-487. [PMID: 11506373]
6. Sivy, T.L., Shirk, M.C. and Fall, R. Isoprene synthase activity parallels fluctuations of isoprene release during growth of Bacillus subtilis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 294 (2002) 71-75. [PMID: 12054742]
7. Sasaki, K., Ohara, K. and Yazaki, K. Gene expression and characterization of isoprene synthase from Populus alba. FEBS Lett. 579 (2005) 2514-2518. [PMID: 15848197]
8. Schnitzler, J.-P., Zimmer, I., Bachl, A., Arend, M., Fromm, J. and Fischbach, R.J. Biochemical properties of isoprene synthase in poplar (Populus x canescens. Planta 222 (2005) 777-786. [PMID: 16052321]