IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name: enterobactin synthase

Reaction: 6 ATP + 3 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate + 3 L-serine = enterobactin + 6 AMP + 6 diphosphate

For diagram of reaction, click here.

Other name(s): N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-serine synthetase; 2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine synthetase; 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate—serine ligase

Systematic name: 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate:L-serine ligase

Comments: This enzyme complex catalyses the conversion of three molecules each of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate and L-serine to form the siderophore enterobactin. In Escherichia coli the complex is formed by EntB (an aryl carrier protein that has to be activated by 4'-phosphopantetheine), EntD (a phosphopantetheinyl transferase that activates EntB), EntE (catalyses the ATP-dependent condensation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate and holo-EntB to form the covalently arylated form of EntB), and EntF (a four domain protein that catalyses the activation of L-serine by ATP, the condensation of the activated L-serine with the activated 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, and the trimerization of three such moieties to a single enterobactin molecule).

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 37318-63-1


1. Brot, N. and Goodwin, J. Regulation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine synthetase by iron. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 510-513. [PMID: 4966114]

2. Rusnak, F., Faraci, W.S. and Walsh, C.T. Subcloning, expression, and purification of the enterobactin biosynthetic enzyme 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-AMP ligase: demonstration of enzyme-bound (2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)adenylate product. Biochemistry 28 (1989) 6827-6835. [PMID: 2531000]

3. Rusnak, F., Liu, J., Quinn, N., Berchtold, G.A. and Walsh, C.T. Subcloning of the enterobactin biosynthetic gene entB: expression, purification, characterization, and substrate specificity of isochorismatase. Biochemistry 29 (1990) 1425-1435. [PMID: 2139796]

4. Rusnak, F., Sakaitani, M., Drueckhammer, D., Reichert, J. and Walsh, C.T. Biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli siderophore enterobactin: sequence of the entF gene, expression and purification of EntF, and analysis of covalent phosphopantetheine. Biochemistry 30 (1991) 2916-2927. [PMID: 1826089]

5. Gehring, A.M., Mori, I. and Walsh, C.T. Reconstitution and characterization of the Escherichia coli enterobactin synthetase from EntB, EntE, and EntF. Biochemistry 37 (1998) 2648-2659. [PMID: 9485415]

6. Shaw-Reid, C.A., Kelleher, N.L., Losey, H.C., Gehring, A.M., Berg, C. and Walsh, C.T. Assembly line enzymology by multimodular nonribosomal peptide synthetases: the thioesterase domain of E. coli EntF catalyzes both elongation and cyclolactonization. Chem. Biol. 6 (1999) 385-400. [PMID: 10375542]

[EC created 1972, modified 2012]

Return to EC 6.3.2 home page
Return to EC 6.3 home page
Return to EC 6 home page
Return to Enzymes home page
Return to IUBMB Biochemical Nomenclature home page